Matter

Everything We are Able to See is Matter, Yet It's Only 4%?

It is obvious that everything in our visible Universe is made of matter. Anything we lay our eyes on from little bug to human, from our planet to remote galactic is made up of ordinary matter particles, which is believed makes up for about 4% of the Universe. What define matter are the atomic structure and the strategic position of electric charges in it: positively charged proton-neutron nucleus surrounded by negatively charged fast spinning-around-the-orbit electrons. Antimatter does not differ in structure from regular matter; it still has nucleus and charged particle orbiting around it, except that antiproton carries negative charge and positron - positive. In the supposed event of Big Bang equal amounts of matter and antimatter have been produced, however most of antimatter got annihilated at the point of contact with each other; the result of antimatter particles meeting matter particles is an explosion emitting large amount of high energy photons (gamma rays).

It is also proposed that matter and antimatter are gravitationally repulsive, meaning that they gravitate away from each other. Somehow, a tiny fraction of regular matter have survived since we find ourselves existing in the Universe, so we have a good reason to expect antimatter to survive also. However, scientists find many indications that amounts of antimatter survived are very insignificant. Why such imbalance? What else does the Universe consist of? It is believed that the remaining proportion of the Universe consists of dark matter and dark energy - thing very difficult to detect, study and measure. Gravitational forces they create, however, open us a window to understand their nature. Large Hadron Collider was designed just for that... 

Back to the Big Bang

It is widely accepted that all matter the entire Universe is comprised of was originated from a very dense and hot cloud of basic particles. Before atoms were formed by neutrons, protons and electrons finding one another, quarks and gluons existed. In order for neutrons and protons to be formed the temperature had to come down for gluons to be able to hold quarks together. Quark-gluon plasma environment is what LHC recreates by generating extremely high energy and velocities deep underground. It took some sophisticated equipment to make it possible...

What is LHC?

The Large Collider of Hadrons is a machine located at Geneva, 300 feet beneath French-Swiss border. It consists of more than 85,000,000 lb. of equipment and is stretched in a 16.5 miles circle. LHC consists of three parts:

1. The Collider; 16.5 mile loop designed to simulate the Big Bang environment as close as possible.
2. The Detectors; four major and two smaller sites located at various locations to collect data on particular energy or collision events.
3. The GRID; a global network of computers and programs created to process the enormous amount of data produced by detectors

The Mystery of Matter and LHC

The experiments to be conducted, LHCb, ATLAS and CMS, are designed to answer lots of questions. What is the origin of mass and why some particles are completely weightless? Scientists believe that Higgs boson is the particle that will help to find the answer to this question. First proposed in 1964, but not yet observed, Higgs boson discovery is the target of ATLAS and CMS experiments. These experiments collect data about supersymmetric particles to explain the make-up of dark matter and dark energy. The LHCb experiment attempts to explain the difference between matter and antimatter. The difference in their behavior has been observed in previous experiments, yet it's not enough to explain matter–antimatter imbalance in the Universe. During past few decades, scientists were able to prove the existence of the fundamental particles that make up the Universe and describe most of their behavior. This understanding is called the Standard Model of Particle Physics, . However it is missing some links and fails to answer some questions. Large Hadron Collider experiment is designed to answer those questions using experimental data and joint efforts of very many people.

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